Activities The actions/functions performed by entities to deliver government policies.
Additional Estimates Appropriation Bills that seek appropriation authority from Parliament for the additional expenditure of money from the Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF), in order to meet requirements that have arisen since the last Budget. Further annual appropriation Bills can be introduced during the year if required. These Bills are called the Additional Estimates Appropriation Bills (after Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO)) or Supplementary Additional Estimates Appropriation Bills (at the same time as bills for the next budget).
Administered Item Items administered by the entity on behalf of the Commonwealth. They are amounts required to meet the total estimated expenses for administered activities that are expected to be incurred.
Annual Appropriation Annual Appropriation Acts provide annual funding for government operations and programs and also for investment in assets or to reduce liabilities. Bills proposing appropriations for the forthcoming financial year are introduced into Parliament on budget night and, when passed, fund approximately 20 per cent of all government expenditure for the year.
Appropriation A law of the Commonwealth Parliament that provides authority to draw money from the CRF. An appropriation authorises expenditure for a specified purpose. The Commonwealth cannot spend money without an appropriation authorising that expenditure (and, in some cases, legislation other than an appropriation may be required to authorise the relevant expenditure).
Budget Paper 1 (BP1) Budget Strategy and Outlook. Provides information on the economic and fiscal outlook for the Australian Government, including information on the government's fiscal strategy.
Budget Paper 2 (BP2) Budget Measures. Provides a description of each Budget measure (revenue, expense and capital) by portfolio.
Budget Paper 3 (BP3) Australia's Federal Relations. Provides information and analysis on Federal funding provided to the States and Territories and local government.
Budget Paper 4 (BP4) Agency Resourcing. Contains information on resourcing for Australian Government entities (including special appropriations, special accounts and a summary of agency resourcing).
Central Entities Refers to the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Finance.
Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF) The CRF is established by section 81 of the Constitution and consists of all revenues and moneys raised or received by the executive government of the Commonwealth. The CRF is self-executing in nature, which means that all money forms part of the CRF automatically upon receipt by the Commonwealth.
Department Capital Budget Departmental (or Administered) Capital Budget (DCB/ACB) are provided to non-corporate Entities (as an equity injection) that receive government funding to meet the costs associated with the replacement of minor assets (assets valued at $10 million or less) or maintenance costs that are eligible to be capitalised. The funding for depreciation, amortisation and make-good expenses was replaced with a DCB in the 2010–11 Budget.
Departmental Item Resources (assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses) that the entity's Accountable Authority controls directly. This includes outsourced activities funded and controlled by the entity. Examples of departmental items include entity running costs, accrued employee entitlements and net appropriations. A departmental item is a component of a departmental program.
Entities Commonwealth entities and Commonwealth companies as defined under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act) that are within the General Government Sector (GGS); the High Court of Australia; and the Future Fund Board of Guardians.
Estimated Actual Details of the current year's estimated final figures as included in the Budget documentation. As the Budget is released in May each year, but the financial year does not end until 30 June, the current year numbers that are used for comparison with Budget amounts can only be estimates.
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the Budget year Expenses not involving a cash flow impact are not included within the calculation of an appropriation. An example of such an event is goods or services received free of charge that are then expensed: e.g. Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) audit services—the ANAO does not charge for audit services however the expense must be recognised. Similarly, bad debts are recognised as an expense but are not recognised for the purpose of calculating appropriation amounts to be sought from Parliament.
Forward Estimates Period The three years following the Budget year. For example, if 2017–18 is the Budget year, 2018–19 is forward year 1, 2019–20 is forward year 2 and 2020–21 is forward year 3. This period does not include the current financial or the Budget year.
General Government Sector (GGS) A Government Finance Statistics (GFS) classification of all entities that are controlled and largely funded by the Australian Government. The GGS provides public services that are mainly non-market in nature and for the collective consumption of the community, or involve the transfer or redistribution of income. These services are largely financed through taxes and other compulsory levies, user charging and external funding. This sector comprises all government departments, offices and some other bodies.
Government Finance Statistics (GFS) A reporting framework that is a specialised statistical system designed to support economic analysis of the public sector. It allows for comprehensive assessments of the economic impact of government and is consistent with international statistical standards of the International Monetary Fund and the System of National Accounts.
Measure A new policy or savings decision of the government with financial impacts on the government's underlying cash balance; fiscal balance; operating balance; headline cash balance; net debt or net worth. Such proposals are normally made in the context of the annual Budget, and are typically published in BP2, in the Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO) and in the Pre-election Economic and Fiscal Outlook (PEFO).
Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO) The MYEFO provides an update of the government's Budget estimates by examining expenses and revenues in the year to date, as well as provisions for new decisions that have been taken since the Budget. The report provides updated information to allow the assessment of the government's fiscal performance against the fiscal strategy set out in its current fiscal strategy statement.
National Partnership payments Under subsection 16(1) of the Federal Financial Relations Act 2009 (FFR Act), the Minister may determine that an amount specified in the determination is to be paid to a State specified in the determination for the purpose of making a grant of financial assistance to support the delivery by the State of specified outputs or projects; or facilitate reforms by the State; or reward the State for nationally significant reforms.
Official Public Account (OPA) The Commonwealth's central bank account. The OPA is one of a group of linked bank accounts, referred to as the Official Public Account Group of Accounts. OPAs are maintained with the Reserve Bank of Australia, as required by subsection 53(3) of the PGPA Act.
Outcomes The results, impacts or consequences of actions by the Australian Government on the Australian community that the government wishes to achieve. For reporting purposes, outcomes equate to major activities in AASB 1052 (section 20).
Portfolio Budget Statements (PB Statements) Budget related paper detailing Budget initiatives and explanations of appropriations specified by outcome and program by each entity within a portfolio.
Program Activity that delivers benefits, services or transfer payments to individuals, industry and/or the community as a whole, with the aim of achieving the intended result specified in an outcome statement.
Program support The entity's running costs allocated to a program. This is funded through an entity's departmental appropriations.
Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act) The PGPA Act replaced the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 (FMA Act) and the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997 (CAC Act) on 1 July 2014. As the primary piece of Commonwealth resource management legislation, the PGPA Act establishes a coherent system of governance and accountability for public resources, with an emphasis on planning, performance and reporting. It applies to all Commonwealth entities and Commonwealth companies.
Special Account A type of special appropriation, which can only be established by a written determination of the Finance Minister (section 78 of the PGPA Act) or through an Act of Parliament (section 80 of the PGPA Act). Special Accounts allow money in the CRF to be acknowledged as set‑aside (hypothecated) for a particular purpose. Amounts credited to a Special Account may only be spent for the purposes of the Special Account.
Special Appropriations (including Standing Appropriations) Authority within an Act (other than the annual Appropriation Acts) to spend money from the CRF for particular purposes. For special appropriations, the authority to withdraw funds from the CRF does not generally cease at the end of the financial year.

Standing appropriations are a sub-category consisting of ongoing special appropriations—the amount appropriated will depend on circumstances specified in the legislation.
Underlying cash balance A cash measure that shows whether the government has to borrow from financial markets to cover its activities. Underlying cash balance equals operating receipts, less operating payments, less investment in non-financial assets, less Future Fund receipts.

Prev. Index Next

Budget 2018–19